Introduction to Treatments

There are various treatments available to patients diagnosed with hypertension. These can be pharmacological or non-pharmacological.


 Non - Pharmacological Treatments

These are associated with a healthy lifestyle and can often be used as preventative measures. They include:

  • Weight Loss
  • Regular Exercise
  • Healthy Diet - i.e. no excess salt, alcohol, etc.
  • No smoking
  • Relaxation


Pharmacological Treatments

A diverse range of drugs are available to treat hypertension. Some example are:


  • e.g. Thiazides - Promote secretion of Na+ and Cl-, which in turn promotes water loss


Alpha Blockers 

  •  e.g. Clonidine - Decreases sympathetic output
  •  e.g. Prazosin - Relaxes smooth muscle


Beta Blockers

  •  e.g. Propanolol - decreases heart rate and contractility - These, however, are being phased out.


Calcium Channel Blockers

  • Broad Spectrum - e.g. Minoxidil - this acts by decreasing contractility of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle
  • Selective - e.g. Manidipine - decreases contractility of vascular smooth muscle


ACE inhibitors

  •  Captopril - Inhibit angiotensin converting enzyme. This enzyme produces angiotensin II, which is involved in vasoconstriction



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