Symptoms of Hypertension include:


Arteriosclerosis - is a general term describing any hardening (and loss of elasticity) of medium or large arteries. Atherosclerosis - is a condition in which an artery wall thickens as the result of a build-up of fatty materials such as cholesterol. It is a syndrome affecting arterial blood vessels, a chronic inflammatory response in the walls of arteries, in large part due to the accumulation of macrophage white blood cells and promoted by low-density lipoproteins

Fibrous tissue/fat deposits



  • Vessel walls give way, lumen size increases
  • E.g. aortic diameter ↑from 2.5cm to 8+cm



  • High systolic pressure
  • With bleeding (post aneurysm) or thrombosis (Blockage)


Left ventricular Hypertrophy (increase in mass)

  • With increase of BP hear has to work harder to overcome the aortic pressure
  • Increased afterload evokes
  • Increased muscle mass
  • IVth heart sound


Myocardial infarction

  • Damage to vessel walls


Retinal damage

High blood pressure can be seen in retina


  • Burst cells of retina


  • Thickened vessels in the retina, more muscle cells around arterioles
  • Abnormal light reflection coming off the vessels
  • May be able to see localised haemorrhage
  • AV nocking, arteriole near venuole, arteriole pushes against venule, squashing the venule


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